At the end of 1771 on the background of the plague epidemic, the Senate issued a decree ordering burying the dead in isolated territories outside the cities.
After the new rules came into force the Assumption Cemetery was founded under Bogoroditsk. Now this cemetery is surrounded by an overgrown city on all sides, but at the time of its formation it was at a considerable distance from the residential buildings. A wooden church was built at the created cemetery. According to some sources, it was consecrated in the name of the Holy Trinity. If it is so, then it did not became the heiress of the parish Trinity Church of Streletskaya Sloboda, which was closed due to its dilapidation several years earlier. Streletskaya Sloboda had its own cemetery and the status of the parish in the 1770s was owned by the Ilyinsky church standing on it, which was the only one on the left bank Bogoroditsk before the construction of the Kazan Church.
In 1826 the building in the Assumption Cemetery burned down. In 1827 a small brick church was erected here, on the upper tier of which a bell tower was placed. In 1831, a brick church of the Assumption of the Virgin was built next to it, funded by the Bogoroditsk merchants led by N.K. Selichev, who had already distinguished at the construction of the Trinity Cathedral.
In 1837 the chapel of St. George the Victorious appeared in the aisle. In 1853 the Assumption Cathedral, previously assigned to the Trinity Cathedral, received its full staff. In 1885, the church was expanded from the west by an annex to the bell tower, at the same time the iconostasis was renewed in the church. The church was exclusively graveyard and had no parish in the pre-revolutionary period. The clergy consisted of one priest and one psalmist.
In 1939-1945 the church was closed. After the re-opening it has been the only operating church in the city for a long time. The staff of the temple was expanded: now there were two priests and a deacon instead of one priest.
In 1955 major restoration work began, during which the painting and the iconostasis were renewed, and the room was enlarged by a sub-consular space. The historical St. George's chapel became an integral part of the Uspensky Cathedral.
In 1974 the exterior wall painting of the building was made. In 1998 the church became a cathedral. In the second decade of the 21st century another major repair followed. In 2011-2012 the dome was restored, and in the spring 2013 the temple was again covered with scaffolding. The modern clergy of the church is three priests and a deacon.